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Table 2 Adjusted Odds Ratios for Tobacco usea diagnoses in 2001 and 2014 in each patient characteristics’ category

From: Trends in tobacco use and tobacco cessation counselling codes among Medicare beneficiaries, 2001–2014

  2001 2014 ORs 2014 vs. 2001
N (%) or Mean (Std) % with tobacco diagnoses N (%) or Mean (Std) % with tobacco diagnoses
All 1,190,827 3.61% 1,362,211 12.97%  
Age
 66–69 243,110 (20.42%) 4.62% 326,808 (23.99) 13.01% 4.13 (3.96–4.31)
 70–74 312,072 (26.21%) 4.39% 328,549 (24.12%) 14.22% 4.55 (4.37–4.74)
 75–79 276,067 (23.18%) 3.68% 259,600 (19.06%) 13.93% 5.11 (4.90–5.33)
 80–84 190,697 (16.01%) 2.78% 205,506 (15.09%) 13.15% 6.22 (5.93–6.52)
 85+ 168,881 (14.18%) 1.52% 241,748 (17.75%) 10.01% 8.08 (7.65–8.53)
Gender
 Female 715,118 (60.05%) 2.87% 815,915 (59.90%) 10.70% 5.24 (5.04–5.44)
 Male 475,709 (39.95%) 4.71% 546,296 (40.10%) 16.35% 5.68 (5.46–5.91)
Race/Ethnicity
 White 1,054,364 (88.54%) 3.71% 1,136,026 (83.40%) 13.42% 4.77 (4.68–4.85)
 Black 88,485 (7.43%) 3.30% 101,084 (7.42%) 13.86% 5.47 (5.25–5.71)
 Hispanic 21,744 (1.83%) 1.89% 69,191 (5.08%) 8.46% 6.24 (5.63–6.91)
 Others 26,234 (2.20%) 1.93% 55,910 (4.10%) 7.64% 5.43 (4.94–5.97)
Medicaid eligibleb
 Yes 151,482 (12.72%) 4.40% 174,648 (12.82%) 16.00% 5.20 (4.99–5.42)
 No 1,039,345 (87.28%) 3.49% 1,187,563 (87.18%) 12.52% 5.72 (5.49–5.95)
Elixhauser Comorbidityc
 0–1 770,969 (64.74%) 3.36% 691,542 (50.76%) 9.60% 4.07 (3.92–4.24)
 2–3 296,602 (24.91%) 3.82% 412,131 (30.25%) 13.97% 5.51 (5.29–5.74)
 4+ 123,256 (10.35%) 4.63% 258,556 (18.98%) 20.37% 7.22 (6.90–7.56)
COPD or Emphysemad
 Yes 190,128 (15.97%) 8.85% 216,620 (15.90%) 30.11% 5.38 (5.18–5.60)
 No 1,000,699 (84.03%) 2.61% 1,145,591 (84.10%) 9.73% 5.52 (5.31–5.74)
  1. aTobacco use: identified using ICD-9 codes 305.1, 989.84, and V15.82
  2. bMedicaid eligibility status: based on whether the patient was eligible for state buy-in coverage provided by the Medicaid program for at least 1 month or in low-income subsidy part D program during the study year
  3. cElixhauser Comorbidity components: congestive heart failure, valvular disease, pulmonary circulation disorders, peripheral vascular disorders, hypertension, paralysis, other neurological disorders, diabetes-uncomplicated, diabetes-complicated, hypothyroidism, renal failure, liver disease, peptic ulcer disease excluding bleeding, AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome), lymphoma, metastatic cancer, solid tumor without metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis/collagen vascular diseases, coagulopathy, obesity, weight loss, fluid and electrolyte disorders, blood loss anemia, deficiency anemia, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, psychoses, and depression;
  4. dCOPD/Emphysema: identified using ICD-9 codes 490, 491, 492, 496