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Table 5 Linear mixed model analyses (TTR calculation based on standard target ranges)a – patient-level covariates

From: Differences in the quality of oral anticoagulation therapy with vitamin K antagonists in German GP practices – results of the cluster-randomized PICANT trial (Primary Care Management for Optimized Antithrombotic Treatment)

Variables Regression coefficient 95% confidence interval P valueb R 2
Age, yearsc − 0.12 − 0.26; 0.02 0.083 0.09
Male gender 2.99 0.38; 5.60 0.025 0.10
Educational attainment 0.069 0.11
 No educational attainment Reference
 Vocational training −47.66 −81.63; −13.68   
 Vocational on-the-job training 2.63 −1.53; 6.80   
 On-the-job training combined with school-based education −0.94 −6.12; 4.24   
 Education in a technical college 3.19 −1.88; 8.27   
 Polytechnic degree 1.78 −4.56; 8.11   
 University degree 3.84 −2.58; 10.26   
BMI, units 0.14 −0.13; 0.40 0.318 0.08
Smoking 0.953 0.08
 Non-smoker Reference
 Former smoker −0.30 −3.04; 2.45   
 Occasional smoker 0.96 −7.38; 9.30   
 Regular smoker −2.01 −8.84; 4.82   
CHA2DS2-VASc-Score > 1d 3.42 −5.14; 11.98 0.433 0.09
Long-term indication for oral anticoagulation therapye
 Atrial fibrillation/flutter 2.22 −1.06; 5.50 0.185 0.08
 Recurrent venous thromboembolism −0.81 −5.17; 3.55 0.716 0.08
 Recurrent pulmonary embolism −2.12 −6.76; 2.53 0.371 0.08
 Mechanical heart prosthesis −3.27 −8.00; 1.46 0.175 0.08
 Intracardiac thrombus −0.23 −13.22; 12.75 0.972 0.08
Comorbiditiese
 Ischemic heart disease −3.42 −6.24; −0.59 0.018 0.09
 Cerebral insult/bleeding −2.17 −5.68; 1.35 0.227 0.09
 Congestive heart failure −3.41 −6.31; − 0.51 0.021 0.09
 Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) −1.83 −6.43; 2.78 0.436 0.08
 Arterial hypertension 0.00 −3.64; 3.64 1.000 0.08
 Renal insufficiency −5.76 −9.22; −2.30 0.001 0.10
 Diabetes mellitus −1.67 −4.38; 1.05 0.228 0.09
 Chronic pulmonary diseases −5.91 −9.33; −2.49 0.001 0.10
 Diseases of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum −0.41 −3.89; 3.07 0.818 0.08
 Malignant tumor −4.31 −9.84; 1.22 0.126 0.09
Compliancef
 Not compliant Reference
 Moderately compliant 6.41 −2.22; 15.04 0.008 0.10
 Highly compliant 10.87 2.67; 19.06   
Self-measurement (n = 648)g
 No Reference
 Yes 5.21 1.74; 8.67 0.003 0.10
Hospitalization
 No Reference
 Yes −4.51 −7.09; −1.93 0.001 0.10
Number of days of hospitalizationh
 Per day −0.09 −0.14; −0.04 0.001 0.10
Occurrence of primary endpointi −4.78 −8.85; − 0.71 0.021 0.09
  1. aThese analyses are based on n = 688 patients and the models are adjusted via randomization group
  2. bp values marked in bold are statistically significant based on a significance level of 0.05
  3. cAge was calculated from 15/mm/yyyy since the exact birth date was not documented to ensure data privacy
  4. dReference category “= 1” because no “= 0” exists
  5. ePatients may have had more than one indication, and/or more than one comorbidity
  6. fCompliance was assessed for each patient by his GP
  7. gDistinction between self-measurement yes and no, dose adjustment not taken into account
  8. h “Days in hospital in total” (during the study period)
  9. iprimary endpoint = combination of all thromboembolic events requiring hospitalization and major bleeding complications, as documented by GPs in the case report form (if more than one event occurred in a patient, the earliest event was considered)