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Table 7 Linear mixed model analyses (TTR calculation based on GP-based target ranges)a – patient-level covariates

From: Differences in the quality of oral anticoagulation therapy with vitamin K antagonists in German GP practices – results of the cluster-randomized PICANT trial (Primary Care Management for Optimized Antithrombotic Treatment)

Variables Regression coefficient 95% confidence interval P valueb R 2
Age, yearsc −0.13 − 0.27; 0.01 0.060 0.10
Male gender 3.14 0.56; 5.72 0.017 0.11
Educational attainment 0.161 0.12
 No educational attainment Reference
 Vocational training −32.54 −66.17; 1.09   
 Vocational on-the-job training 3.19 −0.93; 7.31   
 On-the-job training combined with school-based education −0.32 −5.45; 4.80   
 Education in a technical college 3.84 −1.19; 8.86   
 Polytechnic degree 1.90 −4.37; 8.17   
 University degree 5.34 −1.02; 11.69   
BMI, units 0.15 −0.11; 0.42 0.252 0.09
Smoking 0.962 0.09
 Non-smoker Reference
 Former smoker −0.25 −2.96; 2.47   
 Occasional smoker 0.74 −7.51; 8.99   
 Regular smoker − 2.24 −9.00; 4.51   
CHA2DS2-VASc-Score > 1d 3.90 −4.61; 12.40 0.368 0.10
Long-term indication for oral anticoagulation therapye
 Atrial fibrillation /flutter 1.90 −1.34; 5.15 0.250 0.09
 Recurrent venous thromboembolism −0.85 −5.17; 3.47 0.699 0.09
 Recurrent pulmonary embolism −2.55 −7.14; 2.04 0.275 0.09
 Mechanical heart prosthesis −2.36 −7.05; 2.32 0.322 0.09
 Intracardiac thrombus −0.93 −13.77; 11.90 0.886 0.09
Comorbiditiese
 Ischemic heart disease −3.28 −6.08; −0.49 0.022 0.10
 Cerebral insult / bleeding −2.24 −5.72; 1.24 0.206 0.09
 Congestive heart failure −3.77 −6.64; −0.90 0.010 0.10
 Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) −2.19 −6.75; 2.37 0.346 0.09
 Arterial hypertension −0.25 −3.85; 3.35 0.893 0.09
 Renal insufficiency −5.26 −8.69; −1.84 0.003 0.11
 Diabetes mellitus −2.01 −4.70; 0.67 0.141 0.10
 Chronic pulmonary diseases −5.49 −8.88; −2.11 0.002 0.11
 Diseases of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum −0.73 −4.17; 2.72 0.679 0.09
 Malignant tumor −3.66 −9.13; 1.81 0.190 0.09
Compliancef
 Not compliant Reference
 Moderately compliant 6.89 −1.64; 15.42 0.007 0.12
 Highly compliant 11.22 3.11; 19.32   
Self-measurement (n = 648)g
 No Reference
 Yes 6.17 2.76; 9.59 <  0.001 0.12
Hospitalization
 No Reference
 Yes −4.58 −7.13; −2.03 <  0.001 0.11
Number of days of hospitalizationh
 Per day −0.09 −0.14; −0.03 0.001 0.11
Occurrence of primary endpointi −4.42 −8.44; − 0.39 0.032 0.10
  1. aThese analyses are based on n = 688 patients and the models are adjusted via randomization group
  2. bp values marked in bold are statistically significant based on a significance level of 0.05
  3. cAge was calculated from 15/mm/yyyy since the exact birth date was not documented to ensure data privacy
  4. dReference category “= 1” because no “= 0” exists
  5. ePatients may have had more than one indication and/or more than one comorbidity
  6. fCompliance was assessed for each patient by his GP
  7. gDistinction between self-measurement yes and no, dose adjustment not taken into account
  8. h“Days in hospital in total” (during the study period)
  9. iprimary endpoint = combination of all thromboembolic events requiring hospitalization and major bleeding complications, as documented by GPs in the case report form (if more than one event occurred in a patient, the earliest event was considered)