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Table 2 All cause and cause-specific mortality rates, before, during and after treatment; crude mortality rates (CMR) per 1000 person-years and 95% confidence interval

From: From restrictive to more liberal: variations in mortality among patients in opioid maintenance treatment over a 12-year period

  Pre-treatment (n = 7843) In treatment (n = 6871) After treatment (n = 1650)
n PY CMR (CI) n PY CMR (CI) n PY CMR (CI)
Overdose 68 4526 15.0 (11.5–18.6) 160 29,172 5.5 (4.6–6.3) 159 6819 23.3 (19.7–26.9)
Non-overdose 21 4526 4.6 (2.7–6.6) 218 29,172 7.5 (6.5–8.5) 71 6819 10.4 (8.0–12.8)
Accidents 5 4526 1.1 (0.1–2.1) 15 29,172 0.5 (0.3–0.8) 8 6819 1.2 (0.4–2.0)
Suicide 3 4526 0.7 (0.0–1.4) 15 29,172 0.5 (0.3–0.8) 7 6819 1.0 (0.3–1.8)
Cancer/cardiovascular 3 4526 0.7 (0.0–1.4) 60 29,172 2.1 (1.5–2.6) 16 6819 2.3 (1.2–3.5)
Other 10 4526 2.2 (0.8–3.6) 128 29,172 4.4 (3.6–5.1) 40 6819 5.9 (4.0–7.7)
All-causes 89 4526 19.7 (15.6–23.8) 378 29,172 13.0 (11.7–14.3) 230 6819 33.7 (29.4–38.1)