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Table 4 Number and proportion of households exposed to CHE by study variables in the 2003, 2008, and 2015 surveys

From: Increase of catastrophic health expenditure while it does not have socio-economic anymore; finding from a district on Tehran after recent extensive health sector reform

Variables 2003 survey N (%, CI) 2008 survey N (%, CI) 2015 survey N (%, CI) P-valuea
Total no. households with CHE 73 (12.6%, 9.9–15.3) 70 (11.8%, 9.2–14.4) 179 (29.9%, 26.2–33.6) < 0.001
Economic status   *   
 Quintile 1 (poorest) 25 (17%, 10.9–23.1) 23 (18%, 11.3–24.7) 38 (35.3%, 26.2–44.4) < 0.001
 Quintile 2 16 (14%, 7.6–20.4) 9 (14%, 5.5–22.5) 32 (34.8%, 25.1–44.5) < 0.001
 Quintile 3 15 (14%, 7.4–20.6) 21 (13%, 7.8–18.2) 48 (32%, 24.5–39.5) < 0.001
 Quintile 4 9 (9%, 3.4–14.6) 8 (9%, 3.1–14.9) 22 (25.3%, 16.2–34.4) 0.001
 Quintile 5 (richest) 8 (7%, 2.3–11.7) 9 (6%, 2.2–9.8) 39 (32.5%, 24.1–40.9) < 0.001
Insurance status    *  
 Have 52 (11%, 8.2–13.8) 47 (11%, 8.0–14.0) 160 (33.3%, 29.1–37.5) < 0.001
 Not have 21 (17%, 10.4–23.6) 23 (15%, 9.3–20.7) 19 (22%, 13.2–30.8) 0.382
Household head
 Father 62 (11%, 8.4–13.6) 150 (30.5%, 26.4–34.6) < 0.001
 Mother or other 8 (18%, 6.6–29.3) 29 (39%, 27.9–50.1) 0.017
Member ≥65 years in Household   *   
 Have 14 (11%, 5.6–16.4) 15 (14%, 7.4–20.6) 56 (35.6%, 28.1–43.1) < 0.001
 Not have 59 (12%, 9.1–14.9) 55 (11%, 8.3–13.7) 123 (30.1%, 26.6–34.5) < 0.001
Household size
 1–2 members 18 (19%, 11.1–26.9) 3 (12%, −0.7-24.7) 54 (38.5%, 30.4–46.7) < 0.001
 3–6 members 48 (11%, 8.1–13.9) 48 (10.5%, 7.7–13.3) 120 (29.6%, 25.1–34.1) < 0.001
 ≥ 7 members 7 (12%, 3.6–20.4) 19 (17%, 10.0–23.0) 5 (23.8%, 5.6–42.0) 0.434
Disabled member in the household   *   
 Have 21 (20%, 12.3–27.6) 22 (35.9%, 23.9–47.9) 0.023
 Not have 49 (10%, 7.3–12.7) 157 (31.1%, 27.1–35.1) < 0.001
Dentistry usage (during previous month) ** **   
 Have 27 (27%, 18.3–35.7) 29 (14%, 9.3–18.7) 75 (35.1%, 28.7–41.5) < 0.001
 Not have 46 (10%, 7.3–12.7) 41 (8%, 5.6–10.3) 104 (29.6%, 24.8–34.4) < 0.001
Inpatient service usage (during previous year) * ** *  
 Have 12 (30%, 15.8–44.2) 13 (56.5%, 36.2–76.8) 51 (42.1%, 33.3–50.9) 0.114
 Not have 61 (12%, 9.2–14.8) 57 (10%, 7.5–12.5) 128 (28.8%, 24.6–33.0) < 0.001
Outpatient service usage (during previous month)   ** *  
 Have 67 (14.5%, 11.3–17.7) 170 (32.9%, 28.8–36.9) < 0.001
 Not have 3 (2%, −0.2-4.2) 9 (18.5%, 7.6–29.4) < 0.001
  1. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.001
  2. aChi-square test