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Table 5 Prediction of key determinants of CHE in 2003, 2008, and 2015

From: Increase of catastrophic health expenditure while it does not have socio-economic anymore; finding from a district on Tehran after recent extensive health sector reform

Variables Adjuster OR 2003 95% confidence interval Adjuster OR 2008 95% confidence interval Adjuster OR 2015 95% confidence interval
Economic status    *    
 Quintile 1 (poorest) 3.10 (1.26–7.79) 5.03 (1.82–13.87) 1.47 (0.77–2.80)
 Quintile 2 2.55 (0.99–6.51) 4.19 (1.13–13.76) 1.55 (0.81–2.95)
 Quintile 3 2.19 (0.85–5.62) 2.78 (1.06–7.25) 1.31 (0.73–2.33)
 Quintile 4 1.44 (0.51–4.05) 1.96 (0.64–6.99) 0.65 (0.33–1.28)
Lack of Insurance 1.93* (1.05–3.51) 2.42* (1.26–4.65) 0.62 (0.33–1.18)
Female household head 1.79 (0.69–4.69) 1.46 (0.81–2.63)
Having member ≥65 in Household 1.66 (0.79–3.48) 1.43 (0.69–2.95) 1.14 (0.70–1.84)
Having member ≤5 in Household 0.82 (0.41–1.64) 1.13 (0.53–2.49) 1.30 (0.67–2.53)
Household size
 3–6 members 0.62 (0.31–1.22) 0.62 (0.15–2.53) 0.60 (0.36–1.01)
 ≥ 7 members 0.93 (0.32–2.62) 1.13 (0.24–5.38) 0.34 (0.10–1.16)
Having disabled member in household 1.31 (0.64–2.63) 0.78 (0.40–1.51)
Dentistry service usage 4.09** (2.31–7.24) 4.58** (2.36–8.91) 1.39 (0.92–2.10)
Inpatient service usage 3.52** (1.61–7.69) 11.39** (3.76–34.57) 1.64* (1.02–2.62)
Outpatient service usage 1.51** (1.29–1.77) 1.003 (0.998–1.007)
  1. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.001