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Table 1 Parameters used in the model

From: Economic evaluation of sildenafil for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in Indonesia

Parameters Distribution Mean SE References
Probability of switching FC in a patient receiving standard treatment (per 3 months)
 FC I to FC II Beta 0.127 0.044 [11]
 FC II to FC I Beta 0.125 0.033
 FC II to FC III Beta 0.127 0.044
 FC III to FC II Beta 0.125 0.033
 FC III to FC IV Beta 0.094 0.029
 FC IV to FC III Beta 0.025 0.023
Probability of death of PAH patient (standard treatment or pulmonary selective drug)
 Probability of death in FC I Beta 0.002 0.009 [16]
 Probability of death in FC II Beta 0.013 0.009
 Probability of death in FC III Beta 0.016 0.011
 Probability of death in FC IV Beta 0.240 0.065
Relative risk (RR) of switching FC (compared with standard treatment)
 Sildenafil (FC worsening)a Beta 0.43 0.380 [13]
 Sildenafil (FC improvement)b Beta 4.23 2.043 [13, 14]
 Beraprost (FC worsening)a Beta 0.10 0.199 [15]
 Beraprost (FC improvement)b Beta 0.93 0.612
Direct medical cost (excluding pulmonary selective drug cost)
 Number of hospital admissions in FC I (per 3 months) Gamma 0.24 0.03 Patient interviews using questionnaire
 Number of hospital admissions in FC II (per 3 months) Gamma 0.33 0.13
 Number of hospital admissions in FC III (per 3 months) Gamma 0.20 0.07
 Number of hospital admissions in FC IV (per 3 months) Gamma 0.50 0.50
 Number of outpatient visits in FC I (per 3 months) Gamma 5.89 0.48
 Number of outpatient visits in FC II (per 3 months) Gamma 4.89 0.47
 Number of outpatient visits in FC III (per 3 months) Gamma 3.00 0.47
 Cost of hospital admission (per admission) Gamma 808 143 Hospital billing
 Cost of outpatient visit (per visit) Gamma 21 2
 Total direct medical cost of patient in FC I (USD per 3 months) 317 Patient interviews and hospital billing
 Total direct medical cost of patient in FC II (USD per 3 months) 368
 Total direct medical cost of patient in FC III (USD per 3 months) 224
 Total direct medical cost of patient in FC IV (USD per 3 months) 404
Cost of pulmonary selective drug (USD per 3 months)
 Cost of beraprost (originator price) 88 Hospital billing
 Cost of sildenafil (generic price) 92
Direct nonmedical cost (USD per 3 months)
 Direct nonmedical cost in FC I Gamma 136 27 Patient interviews using questionnaire
 Direct nonmedical cost in FC II Gamma 110 24
 Direct nonmedical cost in FC III Gamma 158 64
 Direct nonmedical cost in FC IV Gamma 364 364
Utility
 Utility of FC I Beta 0.74 0.04 Patient interviews using questionnaire
 Utility of FC II Beta 0.71 0.04
 Utility of FC III Beta 0.56 0.03
 Utility of FC IV Beta 0.51 0.04
  1. aFC worsening means transitions from one FC to higher FC e.g. from FC II to FC III
  2. bFC improvement means transitions from one FC to lower FC e.g. from FC III to FC II
  3. USD 1 = IDR 13,830